Ballantine HT Jr. Will the delivery of health care be improved by the use of chiropractic services? N Engl J Med. 1972;286:237-42.
Meade TW, Dyer S, Browne W, Townsend J, Frank AO. Low back pain of mechanical origin: randomised comparison of chiropractic and outpatient treatment. BMJ. 1990;300:1431-7.
Buerger AA. A non-redundant taxonomy of spinal manipulative techniques suitable for physiologic explanation. Manual Medicine. 1984;1:54-8.
Koes BW, Assendelft WJ, van der Heijden GJ, Bouter LM, Knipschild PG. Spinal manipulation and mobilisation for back and neck pain: a blinded review. BMJ. 1991;303:1298-303.
Chalmers TC, Smith H Jr, Blackburn B, Silverman B, Schroeder B, Reitman D, et al. A method for assessing the quality of a randomized control trial. Controlled Clin Trials. 1981;2:31-49.
Eddy DM, Hasselblad V, Schachter R. An introduction to a Bayesian method for meta-analysis: the confidence profile method. Med Decis Making. 1990;10:15-23.
Eddy DM, Hasselblad V, Schachter R. A Bayesian method for synthesizing evidence. The Confidence Profile Method. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 1990;6:31-55.
Eddy DM, Hasselblad V. FAST*PRO: Software for Meta-Analysis by the Confidence Profile Method. San Diego: Academic Press; 1992.
Von Kuster T Jr. Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service, Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic and Other Key Policy Issues. Washington, DC: The Foundation for the Advancement of Chiropractic Tenets and Science; 1980.
Shekelle PG, Brook RH. A community-based study of the use of chiropractic services. Am J Public Health. 1991;81:439-42. A study of chiropractic worldwide. FACTS Bulletin. 1989;3:32.
Nyiendo J, Haldeman S. A prospective study of 2,000 patients attending a chiropractic college teaching clinic. Med Care. 1987;25: 516-27.
New Haven Health Care, Inc., National Chiropractic Center for Health Planning, Connecticut Chiropractic Association, Inc. Ambulatory chiropractic practice in Connecticut. Final report, Contract No. HSM 110-72-377. Washington, DC: Health Services and Mental Health Administration, Department of Health, Education and Welfare; 1976.
Phillips RB, Butler R Jr. Survey of chiropractic in Dade County, Florida. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1982;5:83-9.
Pima Health Systems, Inc. 1975 ambulatory care survey. Final report to the American Chiropractic Association; November 1976.
Gallinaro P, Cartesegna M. Three cases of lumbar disc rupture and one of cauda equina associated with spinal manipulation (chiropraxis) (Letter). Lancet. 1983;1:411.
Malmivaara A, Pohjola R. Cauda equina syndrome caused by chiropraxis on a patient previously free of lumbar spine symptoms (Letter). Lancet. 1982;2:986-7.
Grayson MF. Horner’s syndrome after manipulation of the neck. BMJ. 1987;295:1381-2.
Hooper J. Low back pain and manipulation. Paraparesis after treatment of low back pain by physical methods. Med J Aust. 1973;1: 549-51.
Kornberg E. Lumbar artery aneurysm with acute aortic occlusion resulting from chiropractic manipulation: a case report. Surgery. 1988;1:122-4.
Ladermann JP. Accidents of spinal manipulations. Annals of the Swiss Chiropractors’ Association. 1981;7:161-208.
Povlsen UJ, Kjaer L, Arlien-Soborg P. Locked-in syndrome following cervical manipulation. Acta Neurol Scand. 1987;76:486-8.
Richard J. Disk rupture with cauda equina syndrome after chiropractic adjustment. NY State J Med. 1967;18:2496-8.
Shvartzman P, Abelson A. Complications of chiropractic treatment for back pain. Postgrad Med. 1988;83:57-8, 61.
Deyo RA. Measuring the functional status of patients with low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1988;69:1044-53.
Shekelle PG, Adams AH, Chassin MR, Hurwitz EL, Park RE, Phillips RB, et al. The appropriateness of spinal manipulation for low-back pain: indications and ratings by a multi-disciplinary expert panel. R-4025/2-CCR/FCER. Santa Monica, California: RAND; 1991.
Sims-Williams H, Jayson MI, Young SM, Baddeley H, Collins E. Controlled trial of mobilisation and manipulation for low back pain: hospital patients. BMJ. 1979;2:1318-20.
Siehl D, Olson DR, Ross HE, Rockwood EE. Manipulation of the lumbar spine with the patient under general anesthesia: evaluation by electromyography and clinical-neurologic examination of its use for lumbar nerve root compression syndrome. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1971;70:433-40.
Buerger AA. A controlled trial of rotational manipulation in low back pain. Manual Medicine. 1980;2:17-26.
Rupert R, Ezzeldin MT. Chiropractic adjustments: results of a controlled trial in Egypt. ICA International Review of Chiropractic. 1985;Winter:58-60.
Carette S, Marcoux S, Truchon R, Grondin C, Gagnon J, Allard Y, et al. A controlled trial of corticosteroid injections into facet joints for chronic low back pain. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:1002-7.
Veronesi U, Saccozzi R, Del Vecchio M, Banfi A, Clemente C, De Lena M, et al. Comparing radical mastectomy with quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, and radiotherapy in patients with small cancers of the breast. N Engl J Med. 1981;305:6-11.
Deyo RA. Conservative therapy for low back pain. Distinguishing useful from useless therapy. JAMA. 1983;250:1057-62.
Frymoyer JW. Back pain and sciatica. N Engl J Med. 1988;318:291-300.
Hadler NM, Curtis P, Gillings DB, Stinnett S. A benefit of spinal manipulation as adjunctive therapy for acute low back pain: a stratified controlled trial. Spine. 1987;12:702-6.
MacDonald RS, Bell CM. An open controlled assessment of osteopathic manipulation in nonspecific low-back pain. Spine. 1990;15: 364-70.
Bergquist-Ullman M, Larsson U. Acute low back pain in industry. Acta Orthop Scand. 1977;170:1-117.
Waterworth RF, Hunter IA. An open study of diflunisal, conservative and manipulative therapy in the management of acute mechanical low back pain. N Z Med J. 1985;98:372-5.
Mathews JA, Mills SB, Jenkins VM, Grimes SM, Morkel MJ, Mathews W, et al. Back pain and sciatica: controlled trials of manipulation, traction, sclerosant and epidural injections. Br J Rheumatol. 1987;26:416-23.
Farrell JP, Twomey LT. Acute low back pain. Comparison of two conservative treatment approaches. Med J Aust. 1982;1:160-4.
Godfrey CM, Morgan PP, Schatzker J. A randomized trial of manipulation for low-back pain in a medical setting. Spine. 1984;9: 301-4.
Rasmussen GG. Manipulation in the treatment of low back pain–a randomized clinical trial. Manual Medicine. 1979;1:8-10.
Coyer AB, Curwin I. Low back pain treated by manipulation. BMJ. 1955;1:705-7.
Ongley MJ, Klein RG, Dorman TA, Eek BC, Hubert LJ. A new approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain. Lancet. 1987; 2:143-6.
Evans DP, Burke MS, Lloyd KN, Roberts EE, Roberts GM. Lumbar spinal manipulation on trial. Part 1–clinical assessment. Rheumatol Rehabil. 1978;17:46-53.
Arkuszewski Z. The efficacy of manual treatment in low back pain: a clinical trial. Manual Medicine. 1987;2:68-71.
Waagen GN, Haldeman S, Cook G, Lopez D, DeBoer KF. Short term trial of chiropractic adjustments for the relief of chronic low back pain. Manual Medicine. 1986;2:63-7.
Gibson T, Grahame R, Harkness J, Woo P, Blagrave P, Hills R. Controlled comparison of short-wave diathermy with osteopathic treatment in non-specific low back pain. Lancet. 1985;2:1258-61.
Nwuga VC. Relative therapeutic efficacy of vertebral manipulation and conventional treatment in back pain management. Am J Phys Med. 1982;61:273-8.
Coxhead CE, Inskip H, Meade TW, North WR, Troup JD. Multicentre trial of physiotherapy in the management of sciatic symptoms. Lancet. 1981;1:1065-8.
Edwards BC. Low back pain and pain resulting from lumbar spine conditions: a comparison of treatment results. Aust J Phys. 1969; 15:104-10.
Glover JR, Morris JG, Khosla T. Back pain: a randomized clinical trial of rotational manipulation of the trunk. Br J Ind Med. 1974; 31:59-64.
Hoehler FK, Tobis JS, Beurger AA. Spinal manipulation for low back pain. JAMA. 1981;245:1835-8.
Doran DM, Newell DJ. Manipulation in the treatment of low back pain: a multicentre study. BMJ. 1975;2:161-4.
Sims-Williams H, Jayson MI, Young SM, Baddeley H, Collins E. Controlled trial of mobilisation and manipulation for patients with low back pain in general practice. BMJ. 1978;2:1338-40.
Zylbergold RS, Piper MC. Lumbar disc disease: comparative analysis of physical therapy treatments. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1981; 62:176-9.
Kinalski R, Kuwik W, Pietrzak D. The comparison of the results of manual therapy versus physiotherapy methods used in treatment of patients with low back pain syndromes. J Manual Medicine. 1989; 4:44-6.
Bronfort G. Chiropractic versus general medical treatment of low back pain: a small scale controlled clinical trial. Am J Chiropractic Med. 1989;2:145-50.
Wilson JN, Ilfeld FW. Manipulation of the herniated disc. Am J Surg. 1952;83:173-5.
Chrisman D, Mittnacht A, Snook GA. A study of the results following rotatory manipulation in the lumbar intervertebral-disc syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg. 1964;46:517-24.
Spitzer W. Scientific approach to the assessment and management of activity-related spinal disorders. Spine. 1987;12(Suppl):S1-S59.
Kirkaldy-Willis WH, Cassidy JD. Spinal manipulation in the treatment of low-back pain. Can Fam Phys. 1975;31:535-40.
Cox JM. Low Back Pain: Mechanism, Diagnosis, and Treatment. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1990.
Potter GE. A study of 744 cases of neck and back pain treated with spinal manipulation. J Can Chiropractic Assoc. 1977;4:154-6.
Mierau D, Cassidy JD, McGregor M, Kirkaldy-Willis WH. A comparison of the effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain patients with and without spondylolisthesis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1987;10:49-55.